January 26, 2017

Exit, Stage Left

If you've ever worked on a stage, read or wrote a script, or have ever watched the Hanna-Barbera cartoon featuring the wanna-be stage actor, Snagglepuss, you've most likely have heard the phrase, "Exit, Stage Left". But what exactly does that term mean?

Here's a quick glossary of stage terms that describe the locations and directions in a theater. Many of these terms actually come from the descriptions of stage actions in a play script.



HOUSE LEFT: the left side of the auditorium from the spectator's viewpoint facing the stage; toward or at the left side of the auditorium from the spectator's viewpoint facing the stage. Also known as Front House Left or Rear House Left.

HOUSE RIGHT: the right side of the auditorium from the spectator's viewpoint facing the stage; toward or at the right side of the auditorium from the spectator's viewpoint facing the stage. Also known as Front House Right or Rear House Right.

STAGE LEFT: the left side of the stage from the actor's viewpoint facing the audience; toward or at the left side of the stage from the actor's viewpoint facing the audience.

STAGE RIGHT: the left side of the stage from the actor's viewpoint facing the audience; toward or at the left side of the stage from the actor's viewpoint facing the audience.

DOWNSTAGE: the part of the stage nearest the audience; toward or at the front part of the stage, nearest the audience. Often used in conjunction with Left or Right: Downstage Left, Downstage Right.

UPSTAGE: the part of the stage farthest from the audience; toward or at the rear part of the stage, farthest from the audience. Often used in conjunction with Left or Right: Upstage Left, Upstage Right.

OFFSTAGE: away from the stage center; toward or at the part of the stage that is out of view of the audience. Often used in conjunction with Left or Right: Offstage Left, Offstage Right.

ONSTAGE: toward the stage center; toward or in the part of the stage that is in view of the audience.

OUT: away from the stage floor and toward the gridiron, referring to vertical movement of scenery, etc.

IN: toward the stage floor, referring to vertical movement of scenery, etc.

Source: Theatre Projects Consultants

December 15, 2016

WiFi Data Systems: What to Watch Out For (Part 5 of 5)

Using wireless modems is an appealing way to build a data network because it's convenient. Long cable runs aren't necessary, which tends to keep the labor costs down. Modems are inexpensive and can be obtained easily. Expansion of the network can be as simple as buying another modem box and locating it where it's needed.

However, despite all the advantages, there are a few land mines that one can hit when deploying a wireless network. In fairness, it should be noted that the problems listed below are rare and very few networks will have these issues. But, such problems have been known to arise and it's worthwhile to keep them in mind. Especially, if a network develops a problem that needs troubleshooting after it's been deployed.

LICENSED AND UNLICENSED USAGE


First, I should clarify something about the legal aspects of anything that uses radio waves. In a broad sense, radio (or wireless) devices fall into two classes; those that require the user to obtain a license from the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), and those that don't.


The FCC issues licenses to users for their radio communications equipment. This includes everyone from police and fire departments to radio and television stations. Without a license, those organizations can't use their radio equipment. However, when WiFi and wireless computer networks began to be deployed in increasing numbers, it became obvious that trying to issue licenses to everyone who wanted a local network just wouldn't be practical. There were just too many users.

So, the Commission set up various bands that users could access with unlicensed devices. They also put the burden on manufacturers to insure that the equipment they were making for use in these bands met the certain technical specifications. All products that are made to be used in these bands must comply with Part 15 of the FCC rules.

The good news here is that when you purchase a new wireless modem for your computer network, you don't have to worry about getting a license to use it. All you have to do is plug it in and let it work.

Except there is one downside to this: the possibility of interference.

INTERFERENCE FROM OUTSIDE SOURCES

The bands used for wireless data communications for unlicensed users are the 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz bands. Because of the proliferating usage of radio frequency based systems today, it is possible for some non-WiFi devices, such as cordless phones, to create a problem for a wireless network.

In essence, there are two main criteria that Part 15 of the FCC rules lays down. First, any unlicensed device used in these bands must not cause interference with a licensed device. Second, any unlicensed device must accept interference that is caused to it.

In the first instance, if your wireless network is causing interference to a licensed users, then you have no choice but to correct the problem immediately or, worst case, shut down your network. The user with the license has the priority and the right to the usage of the band in question.

In the second case, if a user has a device that is causing you trouble and that user has a valid FCC license, then, bluntly put, you are probably out of luck. You can't force a licensed user to stop using their devices or equipment. Again, this is because the user with the license has the priority.

There are other technical issues that also need to be taken into account when one of these situations arise, but those are generally ones that you may hit with outside interference. That is, when something other than a wireless LAN interferes with another wireless LAN.

INTERFERENCE FROM INSIDE SOURCES

Under certain conditions, it is possible for a data network to interfere with another data network. This is extremely rare, but as anyone who has worked with radio equipment will testify, almost anything is possible.

If you have an existing wireless network deployed and you want to add another network, you might experience this issue. Even with all of the modern software and sophisticated modulation techniques, it can still happen. Many times the instruction books provided with wireless modems will discuss this and will suggest some ways to keep the two networks from colliding with each other. Difficult cases may require you to obtain the help of a competent radio engineer to overcome the problem.


A more difficult challenge is when your network is interfering with another user in your area, say a next-door business or neighbor. You'll have to then work with them to fix the problem. However, because of the low power levels used in wireless networks, it's unlikely you'll ever have to deal with this issue.

Some users, in an effort to cover more area, will attach a different antenna to the wireless modem than the one that came with it. Some cordless phone system users will try this too. But, the FCC publication "OET Bulletin No. 63" explains the need of using the proper antenna as follows:
"...Part 15 transmitters must have permanently attached antennas, or detachable antennas with unique connectors. A "unique connector" is one that is not of a standard type found in electronic supply stores.
It is recognized that suppliers of Part 15 transmitters often want their customers to be able to replace an antenna if it should break. With this in mind, Part 15 allows transmitters to be designed so that the user can replace a broken antenna. When this is done, the replacement antenna must be electrically identical to the antenna that was used to obtain FCC authorization for the transmitter."
So, if you want to try to make your system cover more territory, it's better to use a "booster" or get another modem. Changing an antenna could create more problems for you than you want.

PROBLEMS WITH THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

Part 4 of this series discussed the problems that can happen due to the building that you're in. Things like large steel beams used in the framework or large quantities of concrete in walls or slabs dividing sections of a building can block signals from covering all the areas that need to be served. Again, a good radio engineer is the best person to help solve problems caused by the structure that the network is deployed into.

HACKERS, INVADERS AND SPOOFERS

Also in Part 4 of this series, we discussed the security issues involved in over-the-air networks as opposed to wired networks. This is a real problem and needs to be considered if you're going to go wireless. Don't assume you'll be alright and that you won't need to protect the network. Use the proper recommended security techniques.

FINAL THOUGHTS

I hope that this Wi-Fi Series have been helpful in understanding radio, wireless, radio frequency information and the use of over-the-air data transmissions. The main goal of this series was to make it clear that the hardware and software requirements are very complex. Sometimes it may seem like magic, but it's really not. It takes a lot of work on part of both the hardware and software engineers to make our data modems work as well as they do. Even so, future developments will probably be even more astounding than what we have today. That's the beauty of living in a high technology world. 

Click here to revisit any of the the posts you may have missed in this series:
Part 1 - WiFi: What Does the Name Mean and How Does it Work? 
Part 2 - The History of Wireless Technology: Wireless or Radio? 
Part 3 - WiFi Radios and Modulation Techniques 
Part 4 - WiFi RF and Data Security Issues

Paul Black is a freelance writer and broadcast engineer in Northern California. He holds a Certified Professional Broadcast Engineer certification from the Society of Broadcast Engineers and an FCC Lifetime General Class Operator License. He is a licensed amateur radio operator (call sign N6BBZ) and has worked for several broadcast companies, including Bonneville Broadcasting, RKO General Broadcasting, and CBS Television. Visit his website at www.paulblackcopy.com


December 1, 2016

WiFi RF and Data Security Issues (Part 4 of 5)

The use of radio-frequency (RF) devices for wireless transmission of data is an appealing way to set up local networks (LAN). RF-based routers have become relatively inexpensive, easily available from many suppliers, and simple to implement.

In places like private homes, small business locations and even larger areas, such as malls and hotels, wireless networks have become about as common as telephones. Retailers, especially those that operate large brick-and-mortar stores (ie supermarkets or department stores) frequently set up these networks. Consumers who walk into a store are urged to sign-on and thereby get special prices or get help navigating through the store. 



In the last decade or so, many businesses that exist in an office environment, like insurance companies, have implemented wireless LANs, both for their employees and also for use by visitors. However, there are some potential problems for both the operator of the network and the users of the network.

RF SIGNAL BLOCKAGE ISSUES

Unfortunately, radio waves can't go through all materials. Metallic items used in most commercial construction, like metal wall studs, window frames and HVAC ducts, can act as signal shields. These items can also deflect signals around in ways that make I hard for mobile devices, like laptops and smartphones, to receive the signals. This can result in some areas being inaccessible to any over-the-air connection.



Not only does this make it hard for the mobile devices to receive the signal from the LAN, it can make it equally hard for the LAN to "hear" the mobile device. Data sent from the mobile device, either doesn't get through or it requires so many retries due to dropped packets that the response time is slowed down dramatically. The result is frustration on the part of the users.

SCRAMBLED DATA / INTERFERENCE

Two of the more frustrating experiences users suffer are problems with data being scrambled and other services that use the wireless bands creating interference (almost always unintentionally).

As previously mentioned, it can take many retries to send or receive the information. Besides slowing down response time, the data can get badly corrupted. This can result in problems like missing or garbled text, images and graphics not loading, and other unwanted effects.

Interference to a LAN signal these days is rare, thanks to modern modulation methods and encoding/encryption techniques. But it does happen occasionally. Wireless LANs typically use the unlicensed sections of the Industrial, Scientific and Medical bands (also called ISM bands for short). Many other services use these bands also.

Because the Federal Communication Commission does not issue licenses to users to operate in these bands, there is no protection to any individual user against invasion from unwanted signals.

HACK ATTACKS

By far the largest drawback, and the most dangerous one, is the ability of "wide open" networks to be invaded by hackers. Attacks of this type are very common. Criminal hackers can extract everything from documents to credit card and banking information stored on mobiles. The rise of identity theft is due in part to this kind of activity.



SOLUTIONS

Wireless data LANs that operate in the ISM bands must use a fixed power level. It's not possible to increase the actual transmitted power. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules prohibit changing this. Increasing the power to improve coverage is not an option.

However, much work and research has been done by the hardware manufacturers in the area of antenna technology. If you look at a modern router, you'll probably see at least two, or as many as eight, antennas attached to it. This helps a great deal with coverage. Routers from the major makers, such as Linksys or Netgear, now have much longer ranges and larger areas of coverage than those of just a few years ago.

In some environments, areas to be covered and materials used in the construction mean that one single router can't cover the entire area. It is possible to deploy another router, but many times a wireless range extender device will provide signal where it's needed.These devices are simple to install and relatively inexpensive compared to the cost of a router. They are used extensively in both commercial and residential locations. 

Proper placement of both the router and any range extenders can help a lot in improving coverage. Avoiding putting these devices near large metallic objects, or anywhere a large number of electrical cables are installed, can help to insure that signal quality is the best it can be.

By creating proper hardware placement, the number of dropouts and the need for continuous retries to get data delivered successfully can be reduced to a much more tolerable level. This can also help alleviate interference from other users in the band. 

The problem of hackers invading a LAN, particularly one that is open and not secured, will always be with us. In an employee-usage environment, like in an office, or in a home where the LAN is used by only one family, proper security methods typically eliminate attempts by hackers to compromise the network. If visitors need access, they can be given a temporary password that will allow use of the wireless LAN for a limited time.

From the user standpoint, another way to insure that a mobile device can communicate securely in an open-network environment is to set up a Virtual Private Network (VPN). This creates a tunnel from the user to the website or server that is being accessed and is encrypted to keep data from being interrupted. There are many companies that offer this service for a monthly fee.

Now the concern is; what are the pros and cons of deploying a wireless network in any given environment? Our next, and final post in this series, will define some of these and point out the good, the bad and the ugly sides of wireless LANs.




Paul Black is a freelance writer and broadcast engineer in Northern California. He holds a Certified Professional Broadcast Engineer certification from the Society of Broadcast Engineers and an FCC Lifetime General Class Operator License. He is a licensed amateur radio operator (call sign N6BBZ) and has worked for several broadcast companies, including Bonneville Broadcasting, RKO General Broadcasting, and CBS Television. Visit his website at www.paulblackcopy.com